PHENES OF WATER FROGS (PELOPHYLAX) AS THE INDICATORS OF WATER BODIES’ CONTAMINATION IN PRE-CARPATHIANS, ROZTOCHIA, LESSER AND WESTERN POLISSIA

V. O. Stakh, I. S. Khamar, O. S. Reshetylo, Yu. M. Zabytivskyi


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30970/sbi.1101.523

Abstract


The results of phenotypic variability of water frogs (Pelophylax) analysis depending on internal and external influence factors are presented. 345 individuals of three species (Marsh Frog, Pool Frog and Edible Frog) were taken for the analysis from water bodies of different level of anthropogenic influence. The hydrochemical composition of water from the investigated aquatic ecosystems was analyzed, and the classification of water bodies after their water quality was done. The expression rates of nine phenotypes depending on the species of frog, its age stage and water quality class were established. It was found out that all the analyzed phenes show a significant dependence on the habitat conditions. The expression rates of middorsal stripe, as well as the coloration of femur and tibia depend mostly on water bodies’ contamination level. The increasing level of chemical contamination changes the ratios of alternative variants of middorsal stripe, and coloration of femur and tibia. New variants in coloration of femur and tibia that have never been described were noticed. Pelophylax individuals from the most contaminated water bodies (Cholgyni, Perekalky and Zhovtantsi) showed the highest variability by the analyzed phenes.

Keywords: Pelophylax esculentus complex, polymorphism, hydrochemistry, mid­­dorsal stripe, femur and tibia coloration.


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