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Author Guidelines

General Standards

The volume and formatting of the manuscript
The full volume (text with tables, figures and legends, summaries in two languages with the keywords and the list of literature) for a Research article should not exceed 20 pages, for a Review article – 30 pages, and for a Brief report – 4 pages.

The material for publication should be submitted in the doc or docx format, A4 paper size, font Arial, size 14, line spacing 2, margin 2.5 cm on all sides.

If working with Word please use our Word template


Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. Language Editing
    Біологічні студії / Studia Biologica is a bilingual journal. However, all experimental works should be submitted in English that will facilitate the spread of information with researchers from other countries in the region and beyond, and strengthen the research and academic collaboration. Submitted manuscripts should meet international English language standards to be considered for publication. It is the authors’ responsibility to ensure that their manuscripts are substantively edited and corrected. Please, improve the grammar, syntax, and flow of your manuscript prior to submission. The Journal editors will check readability of the submissions; they may suggest either editing by the authors/their editors prior to sending to the reviewers or reject outright based on poor readability. No substantive editing services will be offered by the Journal.
    Editorial decisions on the scientific content of a manuscript are independent of whether it has received language editing or proofreading by any service.
  2. The following should be submitted on-line or sent to the address of the Editorial office (

    • Electronic version of the manuscript, doc; docx format (file name by the first author of the article in English, for example, Starunko.doc)
    • Illustration material – color (for the on-line version) and black-and-white (for the printed version), separate files in one of the standard graphic formats (Starunko1.xls, Starunko2.eps, Starunko3.jpg, or Starunko4.tif)
    • Author information in Ukrainian and English (auth_Starunko.doc) required for correct indexing that includes: 1) the names of all authors, 2) contact phone numbers with the code of the city/operator, 3) e-mail of all authors indicating the corresponding author, 4) ORCID; 5) full names and postal addresses of the institutions where the work was conducted.
    • When submitting an article, authors should propose the names of four independent reviewers for their work, as well as the names of reviewers (not more than two) with conflicts of interest. The editorial board appreciates these suggestions but reserves the right to select potential reviewers.

    Sample author information:
    Holoborodko Ivan Mykolayovych 
    Ivan Franko National University of Lviv
    4 Hrushevsky St.
    Lviv 79005, Ukraine
    ORCID ID – 0000-0001-5719-2187

    Privacy Statement: The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.

  3. Article Types
    Research Articles: Research articles should present significant conceptual advances. They should be as concise as possible and written in a style that is accessible to the broad readership. The total volume of an article must be under 20 pages, and there should be no more than 6 figures and/or tables. Additional display items may be published online as Supplementary Information at the editor’s discretion.

    Review Articles: Review articles should provide a comprehensive review on a specific research, theoretical or methodological topic and thereby provide readers with a state-of-the-art understanding of the scientific problem. The total volume of an article must be under 30 pages, and there should be no more than 6 figures and/or tables.

    Brief Reports: Brief Reports format is intended for short communications of an exceptional timeliness and interest for the scientific community. Brief reports should contain up to 2 pages of text for the main article (not including references). A Brief Report may have no more than 2 supplementary figures or tables.

  4. Manuscript Structure
    All manuscripts must contain the essential elements: Cover page with structured Abstract; Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, Conclusions, Acknowledgments and data on the financial support; References; Abstract (in Ukrainian for the English language articles and in English for the Ukrainian language articles); Artwork and Tables with Captions. If your article includes any Videos and/or other Supplementary material, this should be included in the initial submission for the peer review purposes. Please, divide the article into clearly defined sections. Please, ensure the text of the paper is double-spaced and has consecutive line numbering - this is an essential peer review requirement.

    Cover page:
    UDC Index (Universal Decimal Classification);
    Authors: surname and initials of all authors;
    The names and full postal addresses of the institutions where each author is affiliated;
    E-mail of the corresponding author

    Abstract of the article (in Ukrainian for the English language articles and in English for the Ukrainian language articles). Text of the Abstract for Research articles should include between 1.800 and 2.000 characters without intervals, structured into Background, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusions. It should include a description of the fundamentally important results and be intelligible to the non-specialist readers in a specific field, therefore should avoid specialized terms and abbreviations.
    Keywords. All article types require a minimum of five and a maximum of eight keywords.
    Registration number and the Funding source (if none, state so).

    Title. The title should be concise, omitting terms that are implicit and, where possible, be a statement of the main result or conclusion presented in the manuscript. Abbreviations should be avoided within the title.
    Witty or creative titles are welcome, but only if relevant and within measure. Consider if a title meant to be thought-provoking might be misinterpreted as offensive or alarming. In extreme cases, the editorial office may veto a title and propose an alternative.
    Authors should avoid:

    • titles that are a mere question without the answer
    • unambitious titles, for example starting with “Towards,” “A description of,” “A characterization of” or “Preliminary study on”
    • vague titles, for example starting with “Role of”, “Link between”, or “Effect of” that do not specify the role, link, or effect
    • including terms that are out of place, for example the taxonomic affiliation apart from species name.

    For Errata, General Commentaries, and Editorials, the title of your manuscript should have the following format:

    • “Errata: [Title of original article]”

    General Comments:
    “Comments: [Title of original article]”
    “Response: Comments: [Title of original article]”

    The manuscript is organized by headings and subheadings. The section headings should be appropriate for your field and the research itself. For original research articles, it is recommended to organize your manuscript in the following sections or their equivalents for your field.

    Succinct, with no subheadings. The Introduction should provide the background information needed to understand the presented study, and the reasons why experiments were conducted; what problem was studied. Citation of strongly related to research problem publications, no more than 10 years old, if possible, is recommended. At the end of the section, clear and exact aims of the study should be stated.

    Materials and Methods
    This section may be divided by subheadings and should contain sufficient detail so that when read in conjunction with cited references, all procedures can be repeated. For experiments reporting results on animal or human subject research, an ethics approval statement should be included in this section (for further information, see the Bioethics section of our polices and Publication Ethics).
    Materials and Methods should describe all the details of how the study was conducted. Subheadings may be used to separate different methodologies. New methods should be described in sufficient detail so that other researchers can reproduce the experiment. Established methods should be presented briefly with a reference where readers can find more detail. All statistical tests and parameters should be stated. Manuscripts may also be sent to review statistics.

    Bioethical standards. The Journal follows the rules recommended by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). (Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals). If animals were used in the study, the authors should indicate the conditions of animal treatment during the experiment, methods of anesthesia and euthanasia, indicating the number and date of the protocol with the permission of the Bioethics Commission for research using animals and patients. The protocol of the experiment (s) must be approved by the relevant Bioethics Committee and comply with international standards. For works on the use of human materials – the Declaration of Helsinki (1975) with additions (2000 and 2008).

    Results and Discussion
    In this section, as in the Materials and Methods section, use subheadings to separate the results of different experiments. Results should be presented in a logical orderDo not duplicate data among figures, tables, and text. The text should summarize what the reader will find in the table, or mention one or two of the most important data points. It is usually much easier to read data in a table than in the text. The results of statistical analyses should be included in the text, usually by providing P values for statistically significant differences.


    Acknowledgements and Funding Sources
    All research articles should have a funding acknowledgement statement included in the manuscript. The funding agency should be written out in full, followed by the grant number in square brackets, see following example (the text in bold is mandatory, unless specified otherwise by the journal):
    The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This work was supported by the Medical Research Council [grant number xxx].
    Multiple grant numbers should be separated by comma and space. Where the research was supported by more than one agency, the different agencies should be separated by semi-colon, with “and” before the final funder. Thus:
    This work was supported by the Trust [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Natural Environment Research Council [grant number zzzz]; and the Economic and Social Research Council [grant number aaaa].
    In some cases, research is not funded by a specific project grant, but rather from the block grant and other resources available to a university, college or other research institution. Where no specific funding has been provided for the research we ask that corresponding authors use the following sentence:
    The author(s) received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
    Important note: If you have any concerns that the provision of this information may compromise your anonymity dependent on the peer review policy of this journal outlined above, you can withhold this information until you submit your final accepted manuscript.

    Compliance with Ethical Standards

    Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

    Animal Rights: This article does not contain any studies with animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
    Human Rights: This article does not contain any studies with human subjects performed by any of the authors.
    Animal studies: All international, national and institutional guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals were followed.
    Human Rights: All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards

    Consent for publication
    A written consent was taken from the parents of the patient to publish this case report and the accompanying images.

    Author Contributions
    Conceptualization, [authors initials]; methodology, [authors initials]; validation, [authors initials]; formal analysis, [authors initials].; investigation, [authors initials]; resources, [authors initials]; data curation, [authors initials]; writing – original draft preparation, [authors initials]; writing – review and editing, [authors initials]; visualization, [authors initials] supervision, [authors initials]; project administration, [authors initials]; funding acquisition, [authors initials].

    All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

    Authors contribution types according to the CRediT taxonomy


    Ideas; formulation or evolution of overarching research goals and aims.


    Development or design of methodology; creation of models.


    Programming, software development; designing computer programs; implementation of the computer code and supporting algorithms; testing of existing code components.


    Verification, whether as a part of the activity or separate, of the overall replication/reproducibility of results/experiments and other research outputs.

    Formal analysis

    Application of statistical, mathematical, computational, or other formal techniques to analyze or synthesize study data.


    Conducting a research and investigation process, specifically performing the experiments, or data/evidence collection.


    Provision of study materials, reagents, materials, patients, laboratory samples, animals, instrumentation, computing resources, or other analysis tools.

    Data Curation

    Management activities to annotate (produce metadata), scrub data and maintain research data (including software code, where it is necessary for interpreting the data itself) for initial use and later reuse.

    Writing – original draft preparation

    Creation and/or presentation of the published work, specifically writing the initial draft (including substantive translation).

    Writing – review and editing

    Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work by those from the original research group, specifically critical review, commentary or revision – including pre- or post-publication stages.


    Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work, specifically visualization/data presentation.


    Oversight and leadership responsibility for the research activity planning and execution, including mentorship external to the core team.

    Project administration

    Management and coordination responsibility for the research activity planning and execution.

    Funding acquisition

    Acquisition of the financial support for the project leading to this publication.

    The Journal requires citing and referencing in line with the APA style and presenting the Reference list at the end of the manuscript in the alphabetical order. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Note that missing data will be highlighted at the proof stage for the author to correct. Reference list must contain recent (last three years) publications.
    References should also ensure referring to highly relevant literature items, primarily those retrieved from multidisciplinary bibliographic databases, such as Scopus and Web of Science.
    Referring to each scientific fact requires at least one reference. Referring to primary rather than secondary literature sources is advisable. The authors are advised to adhere to the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA). The reference lists include only items discussed in the text. The authors should be familiar with contents of all cited items and ensure that all these items can be found in the Reference list.
    All references in Cyrillic have to be transliterated and  translated into English with note (In Ukrainian), (In Russian).
    It is required to indicate digital object identifiers (DOI) assigned to referenced sources. The presence of an identifier can be checked using the Crossref service (after entering the source names in the window, press “Submit”, and for further verification - “Reset”)

    The editorial policy opposes unethical practices in scientific publishing, such as excessive self-citation, self-plagiarism, and involvement in citation farms, adhering to COPE's ethical codes for journal publishers, editors, and reviewers; editors and reviewers carefully analyze the reference list, evaluating not the quantity but the quality and relevance of citations, where excessive self-citation is not recommended due to potential distortion of objectivity, although in some cases, citing a series of one's own previous works is justified for continuing or deepening research, but generally, pilot works should be replaced with more comprehensive reviews without excessive self-citation, with a maximum permissible level of self-citation up to 5 references or 20% of the total number of citations in the manuscript, exceeding which is possible only if properly justified in the cover letter, otherwise the manuscript will be rejected, as the editorial team requires strict adherence to the highest ethical standards from authors, editors, and reviewers.

  5. Illustrations
    All figures, tables, and images will be published under a Creative Commons CC-BY license, and permission must be obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including republished/adapted/modified/partial figures and images from the internet). It is the responsibility of the authors to acquire the licenses, follow any citation instructions requested by third-party rights holders, and cover any supplementary charges.

    Figure requirements and style guidelines
    It is obligatory to present at least part of the manuscript data in tables and figures. For reviews, the number of illustrations (photographs, charts and diagrams) can not exceed 8; experimental articles – 6; short communications – 2. All illustrations must be numbered in Arabic numerals marked as “Fig.”: Fig. 1, Fig. 1-3 and others. Figure captions must be submitted both in Ukrainian and English. 

    All large descriptions on figures should be replaced by numeric or letter designations, and their explanation should be transferred to the caption. The abscissa and ordinate of the charts should be clear, with the definition of the dimension of the scale and quantities.
    Each drawing must be submitted electronically as a separate file in one of the formats: * .xls, * .eps. Photographs should be submitted at a resolution of at least 300 dpi in the following formats: *.tif or *.jpg.

    All images must have a resolution of 300 dpi at final size. Check the resolution of your figure by enlarging it to 150%. If the image appears blurry, jagged, or has a stair-stepped effect, the resolution is too low.
    The text should be legible and of high quality in Arial font. The smallest visible text should be no less than eight points in height when viewed at actual size.
    Solid lines should not be broken up. Any lines in the graphic should be no smaller than two points wide.
    Please note that saving a figure directly as an image file (*.jpg, *.tif) can greatly affect the resolution of your image. To avoid this, one option is to export the file as PDF, then convert into TIF or EPS using a graphics software.

    Format and color image mode
    The following formats are accepted: TIF/TIFF (.tif/.tiff), JPEG (.jpg), and EPS (.eps). Images must be submitted in the color mode RGB

    We recommend that the authors keep to the maximum drawing size of 135x195 mm. Kindly ensure that each figure is mentioned in the text and in numerical order.

  6. Table requirements and style guidelines
    Tables should be inserted into the text of the manuscript in an editable format. If you use a word processor, build your table in Word. An empty line should be left before and after the table.
    Table captions in Ukrainian and English must be placed immediately before the table. Captions should be preceded by the appropriate label, for example “Table 1”. Please use only a single paragraph for the caption. Notes are placed directly under the tables. The use of abbreviations in the text of the table is not allowed.
    Kindly ensure that each table is mentioned in the text and in numerical order.
    Maximum permissible table width is 135 mm. Please note that large tables covering several pages cannot be included in the final PDF for formatting reasons. These tables will be published as supplementary material.
    Tables which are not according to the above guidelines will cause substantial delay during the production process.
  7. Mathematical Formulas
    Mathematical formulas should be presented as a Microsoft Equation in the Microsoft Word. In order to improve the quality of graphical material or to prepare it in accordance with printing requirements, the editors may invite authors to submit source files.
  8. Chemical Compounds
    If the paper reports new chemical entities, the authors are required to provide the exact structures of the compounds and are encouraged to include appropriate data to support the assignment of each chemical structure reported according to set standards in the field. Papers reporting the synthesis of new molecules must include the details of the synthesis in the Methods.

    When a paper reports a new chemical entity or use of a known compound, the authors should use systematic nomenclature to refer to the chemical compounds, based on the guidelines of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). Use of informal common names, such as rapamycin, cholesterol, and penicillin, is also acceptable. Any standard or unconventional abbreviation should be defined at the point where it first occurs in the text.

    For graphical representation of chemical structures, we suggest that authors refer to the IUPAC recommendations. There are a range of available molecular editor programs for creating images of chemical structures. Regardless of the program used, when inserting chemical structures into figures and/or tables, please ensure that they are exported from the molecular editor program as high-resolution files and that the final figure/table files follow general Figure Guidelines).

  9. Statistical Analysis 
    All data sets presented in the paper should be complete, including data of the relevant statistical analysis (means, standard deviations, etc.) as well as methods of data normalization, transformation, statistical tests and the statistical package or program used. A complete description of the experimental design and statistical analysis is important both for the correct interpretation of the data and for independent verification of claims. The manuscript should indicate which statistical package or data analysis program was used. Statistics and error bars must be applied for independent experiments and not for replicates within a single experiment. In general, a minimum of three biological replicates are required. For a detailed discussion of error bars in experimental biology, see Cumming et al., J. Cell Biol. 177: 7-11. The authors, as far as necessary, are encouraged to involve biostatistians experts in the design and analysis of experiments, this will ensure the correct interpretation of the results.

    Additional resources:
    Statistics for Biologists (Nature)
    Use of ANOVA versus T-test (The Plant Cell)
    How Robust Are Your Data? (Nature)
    Error Bars in Experimental Biology (J. Exp. Bot.)
    Know When Your Numbers Are Significant (Nature)
    Ten Simple Rules for Reproducible Computational Research
    SuperPlots: Communicating reproducibility and variability in cell biology (Journal of Cell Biology)
    Estimation Statistics Tool

  10. Search engine optimization (SEO)
    There are a few simple ways to maximize your article's discoverability. Follow the steps below to improve the search results of your article:

    • include a few of your article's keywords in the title of the article;
    • do not use long article titles;
    • pick 5-8 keywords using a mix of generic and more specific terms on the article subject(s);
    • use the maximum amount of keywords in the first two sentences of the abstract;
    • use some of the keywords in level 1 headings.
  11. Template


Copyright Notice

Authors are kindly requested to sign an Open Access license agreement. All articles are distributed under Creative Commons Attribution license (CC-BY) (, which means that Біологічні студії / Studia Biologica’s readers are entitled to use, reproduce, disseminate or display these articles provided that:  
1) the original authorship is properly and fully attributed;  
2) the journal and publisher are attributed as the original place of publication with correct citation details given;  
3) in case an original work is subsequently reproduced or disseminated in part or as a derivative work, it should be clearly stated.

Authors retain the copyright and distribution rights. They are permitted to deposit all versions of their paper in an institutional or subject repository:
● Preprint.
● Author’s Accepted Manuscript.
● Published article (Version of Record).

Author Declaration should be signed by all authors (send a scan to the editor by e-mail). 
Download Authorship Declaration in pdf-format


Privacy Statement

The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.