O. Doroshenko, K. Nazaruk



Background. The paper presents the results of original research on the diversity of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Lviv (Ukraine). In Ukraine, 146 species of ants from 39 genera of five subfamilies are known at present. Ants play an important role in ecosystems. They build their nests in the soil, which contributes to better soil formation. Ants are important links in trophic chains. They are the most adaptable to settling new territories. The diversity of ants in Lviv is potentially very high due to a good geographical location between Polissia and the Carpathians. However, today there are almost no articles on ants’ taxonomic groups in Lviv. This study aims to present new records of Lviv myrmecofauna, and to investigate ants’ seasonal rhythms.
Materials and Methods. The objects of our research were ants (Formicidae), collected from three different park areas in Lviv, and the territories of the Botanical garden of Ivan Franko National University of Lviv between 2020 and 2021. Main sampling methods were hand collecting and usage of sweet baits (Romero, 1989). In addition, we investigated ants’ behavioral traits related to the winter dormancy state.
Results and Discussion. We analyzed 90 samples of worker ants. In the course of identification, 20 different species belonging to seven genera (Formica Linnaeus, 1758, Lasius Fabricius, 1804, Camponotus Mayr, 1861, Myrmecina Curtis, 1829, Myrmica Latreille, 1804, Temnothorax Nylander, 1856 and Tetramorium Mayr, 1855) were found, which in turn belong to two subfamilies: Formicinae Lepeletier, 1836 and Myrmecinae Emery, 1877. Numerous species belong to genera Lasius, Formica, Myrmica, and Tetramorium, which are mentioned as common in Eastern Europe. Behavioral research related to hibernation shows that Formica polyctena Forster, 1850 begins to enter hibernation earlier than other species, namely on 30.09.21 at an average air temperature of +12 °C. They were the latest to leave this state, at the end of April 25.04.22 at the same temperature. On the other hand, Lasius niger (Linnaeus, 1758) remained active the longest in autumn, namely until 21.10.21 at a temperature of +3 °C, and came to the surface one of the earliest on 24.03.22 at +9 °C.
Conclusion. We recorded 20 ant species that have not been mentioned for Lviv because of the absence of any published information. The data obtained within this study show the important role of botanical gardens in preserving the biodiversity of ants despite their small area. Therefore, the topic of the diversity of the myrmecofauna of Ukraine, and urban areas in particular, is relevant and insufficiently researched today.


Hymenoptera, Formicidae, urban fauna, species diversity, behavior, Lviv, Ukraine

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