Оlga Мayevska


The research is based on modern theories of the formation and functioning of the collective and
personal identities, іn particular, mnemonic actors, oral and written fi xation of identities, externalized
memory carriers. The study explores the notion of memory, its varieties, design and role in the formation
of identities. The analysis reveals the main methods and techniques used in the novels of M. De Unamuno
to render the formation and functioning of the collective and personal identities. Special attention is paid to
the theory of a mnemonic actor, an active individual who uses memory as an instrument of self-affi rmation,
techniques of oral and written fi xation of identities, as well as methods of rendering personal memory through
externalized memory carriers, time and space metaphors of memory. The interrelation of individual and
collective identities is explored taking into consideration the role of memory and its varieties in the process
of constructing identities.
In spite of the fact that a lot of researchers discussed the problems of human immortality, eternity and
preservation of collective identity in Unamuno’s works, a detailed textual analysis of forms, transformations
and mediums of memory has not been conducted. Therefore, the article (based on Unamono’s novels “Peace
in War”, “Love and Pedagogy”, “Mist”, “Abel Sánchez”,“Aunt Tula”, and “Holy Manuel the Good, martyr”)
fi lls a gap in our understanding of cultural memory which plays a consolidating role in the study of issues
of collective and personal identity.
Keywords: Miguel de Unamuno, memory, reminiscence, oblivion, personal and collective identity.

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