Theoretical-methodological study background concept security sociological thought XIX – fi rst half of the ХХ century

Ljudmyla Kalashnikova


Studying the phenomenon of security relevant at all stages of development of society. Not having the status of a separate science, security paradigm developed in the context of philosophical, political, sociological theory of society, the state, as well as the nature of their operation. The ideas of the representatives of western sociological thought were crucial for the institutionalization of security issues within sociology, understanding the essence of the security concept, its delivery mechanisms. The article discusses the theoretical and methodological foundations for the study of security issues of personality, society and state representatives in the works of the classical period of development of sociological thought. In particular, it analyzes the ideas of A. Comte, H. Spencer, L. Ward, J. S. Mill, E. Durkheim, K. Marx, G. Simmel, A. Weber, W. Pareto, M. Weber, T. Lessing, K. Jaspers, K. Mannheim, P. Sorokin on the essence of the concept of security and the safe functioning of the mechanisms of development of society. In particular, the security of the society O. Comte regarded as a kind of order, statics, which are violated as a result of the various manifestations of the social whole. H. Spencer links the secure existence of the society with the normal activities of social institutions that govern the behavior of people. L. Ward believed that the existence of society can a threat mismatch human desires exist yet safe and physiological needs. According J. S. Mill safety when society should provide the public authorities, the laws also need to monitor their actions and to protect people from the government itself. E. Durkheim basis risk the proper functioning of society considers wrong division of labor as a necessary condition of the material and intellectual development. G. Simmel focuses on the fact that the threat of functioning of social systems is the fast pace of their cultural development. A. Weber believes that hinder the functioning of European society is the expansion, competition, monopolization and redistribution of areas from positions of strength. M. Weber sees bureaucracy as the main threat to human life and society. According to T. Lessing, a major threat to human existence is a culture that transforms nature into a dead creature. K. Jaspers the main threat to human existence fi nds meaning loss of human life. K. Manheim as the dominant threat to the democratic mass society considers anarchy, repression forms of the dictatorship of the liberal-democratic structures. R. Guardini considers that the main threat to humanity is the change in the relationship of man to nature, in particular, the lack of emotional experiences, direct perception. P. Sorokin sees trust as a basis for the safe functioning and development of society. In the article we characterize the place and role of theoretical achievements of theoretical sociology XIX - fi rst half of the ХХ century. In the formation of the foundations of modern sociological knowledge of safety, security features defi ned by sociology to develop the institutional framework of the domestic security environment development. Ensuring the safety of society, largely depends on the state of having strong government action and laws to preserve the integrity of the social organization. Security of the person determined by the level of freedom and equality. Formation of a common methodology of sociological knowledge of the concept of security should be limited to theoretical sociology. Sociology security as one of their special branch of theories should be viewed as a basic methodological basis of general scientifi c knowledge about safety. Ukrainian sociology has certain diffi culties caused by qualitatively new threats and risks specifi c to the modern conditions of life, but that it has the potential for the formation of the institutional foundations of the safe development of modern Ukrainian society.

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м. Львів, вул. Університетська 1, ауд. 319